Supplementary Files



comparative analysis
state of charge
cell balancing
single switched capacitor
switched shunting resistor


Battery cell balancing holds significant importance in electric vehicles (EVs) due to its potential impact on cell imbalance. Battery packs containing multiple cells require continuous balancing to minimize variations between cells. However, over time and after multiple charge and discharge cycles, individual cells may exhibit varying state of charge (SOC). Battery cells within the same battery pack with different SOC values are at risk of overcharging or over-discharging, leading to a reduction in their useful lifespan. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the single switched capacitor (SSC) cell balancing method and the conventional switched shunting resistor (SSR) cell balancing method. Analysis is conducted through simulations of cell balancing models using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the SSR cell balancing method achieved shorter balancing time, approximately one-quarter to one-third of the time needed by the SSC cell balancing method. On the other hand, the SSC cell balancing method demonstrated higher output power with an 8.32% higher SOC in case study 1 and 29.03% higher SOC in case study 2. Therefore, our findings favour the SSC method as it results in a higher final SOC after equalization.



Alvarez-Diazcomas, A., Estévez-Bén, A.A., Rodríguez-Reséndiz, J., Carrillo-Serrano, R.V., & Álvarez-Alvarado, J.M. (2023). A high-efficiency capacitor-based battery equalizer for electric vehicles. Sensors, 23(11), 5009.

Babu, P.S., & and Ilango, K. (2022). Comparative analysis of passive and active cell balancing of Li ion batteries. 2022 Third International Conference on Intelligent Computing Instrumentation and Control Technologies (ICICICT), Kannur, India, 711-716, IEEE.

Bhagat, S., Archana, C., Virendra, T., Khade, K., Budukh, A., Bhosale, A., & Mathew, V.K. (2022). Simulation of Li-ion battery using MATLAB-Simulink for charging and discharging. E3S Web of Conferences, 353, 03001.

Bruen, T., Marco, J., & Gama, M. (2015). Model based design of balancing systems for electric vehicle battery packs. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 48(15), 395-402.

Chandrakala, K.M.V. (2021). Active cell balancing technique for improved charge equalization in Lithium-ion battery stack. 4th International Conference on Recent Developments in Control, Automation & Power Engineering (RDCAPE), Noida, India, 160-164, IEEE.

Chen, F., Yuan, J., Zheng, C., Wang, C., Li, Z., & Zhou, X. (2018). A state-of-charge based active EV battery balancing method. 2nd International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Automation (ICEEA 2018), Chengdu, China, 139, 70-73, Atlantis Press.

Chen, Z., Liao, W., Li, P., Tan, J., & Chen, Y. (2022). Simple and high-performance cell balancing control strategy. Energy Science & Engineering, 10(9), 3592-3601.

Daowd, M., Antoine, M., Omar, N., Lataire, P., Van den Bossche, P., & Van Mierlo, J. (2014). Battery management system—Balancing modularization based on a single switched capacitor and bi-directional DC/DC converter with the auxiliary battery. Energies, 7(5), 2897-2937.

Daowd, M., Antoine, M., Omar, N., Van den Bossche, P., & Van Mierlo, J. (2013). Single switched capacitor battery balancing system enhancements. Energies, 6(4), 2149-2174.

Daowd, M., Omar, N., Bossche, P.V.D., & Van Mierlo, J. (2012). Capacitor based battery balancing system. World Electric Vehicle Journal, 5(2), 385-393.

Daowd, M., Omar, N., Bossche, P.V.D., & Van Mierlo, J. (2011). Passive and active battery balancing comparison based on MATLAB simulation. 2011 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Chicago, IL, USA, 1-7, IEEE.

Duraisamy, T., & Kaliyaperumal, D. (2020). Active cell balancing for electric vehicle battery management system. International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems, 11(2), 571-579.

Hemavathi, S. (2021). Overview of cell balancing methods for Li?ion battery technology. Energy Storage, 3(2), 1-12.

Hoekstra, F.S.J., Bergveld, H.J., & Donkers, M.C.F. (2022). Optimal control of active cell balancing: Extending the range and useful lifetime of a battery pack. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 30(6), 2759-2766.

Katoch, S.S., & Eswaramoorthy, M. (2020). A detailed review on electric vehicles battery thermal management system. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 912, 1-10, IOP Publishing.

Kumar, S., Rao, S.K., Singh, A.R., & and Naidoo, R. (2023). Switched-resistor passive balancing of Li-ion battery pack and estimation of power limits for battery management system. International Journal of Energy Research, 1-21.

Lee, W.C., Drury, D., & Mellor, P. (2011). Comparison of passive cell balancing and active cell balancing for automotive batteries. IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Chicago, IL, USA, 1-7, IEEE.

Nath, A., & Rajpathak, B. (2022). Analysis of cell balancing techniques in BMS for electric vehicle. International Conference on Intelligent Controller and Computing for Smart Power (ICICCSP), Hyderabad, India, 1-6, IEEE.

Nivya, K.P., & Deepa, K. (2021). Active cell balancing for a 2s Lithium ion battery pack using flyback converter and push-pull converter. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 1070, 1-13, IOP Publishing.

Paidi, R., & Gudey, S.K. (2022). Active and passive cell balancing techniques for Li-ion batteries used in EVs. IEEE International Power and Renewable Energy Conference (IPRECON), Kollam, India, 1-6, IEEE.

Samaddar, N., Kumar, N.S., & Jayapragash, R. (2020). Passive cell balancing of Li-ion batteries used for automotive applications. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1716, 1-9, IOP Publishing.

Shah, S., Murali, M., & Gandhi, P. (2018). A practical approach of active cell balancing in a battery management system. IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES), Chennai, India, 1-6, IEEE.

Siaw, F.L., Thio, T.H.G., & Ng, C.Y. (2021). Adaptive solar photovoltaic method to overcome partial shading effect on solar photovoltaic system. Advances in Material Science and Engineering, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, Springer, Singapore, 395-401.

Song, H., & Lee, S. (2023). Study on the systematic design of a passive balancing algorithm applying variable voltage deviation. Electronics, 12(12), 2587.

Torchio, M., Magni, L., Gopaluni, R.B., Braatz, R.D., & Raimono, D.M. (2016). Lionsimba: A Matlab framework based on a finite volume model suitable for Li-ion battery design, simulation, and control. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 163(7), A1192.

Wang, L., Lu, X., Li, H., Li, X., Shen, J., & Chen, C. (2022). Research on equalization strategy of Lithium battery pack based on multi-layer circuit. Applied Sciences, 12(10), 4893.

Wei, Y., Dai, S., Wang, J., Shan, Z., & Min, J. (2018). Hybrid natural and forced active balancing control of battery packs state of charge based on partnership for a new generation of vehicles. Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 1-10.

Yang, Y., & Siaw, F.L. (2021). An improved variable step size MPPT method for photovoltaic array under partial shading conditions. Journal of Engineering and Technological Advances, 6(1), 1-16.

Yildirim, B., Elgendy, M., Smith, A., & Pickert, V. (2019). Evaluation and comparison of battery cell balancing methods. IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe), Bucharest, Romania, 1-5, IEEE.

Zhou, W., Zheng, Y., Pan, Z., & Lu, Q. (2021). Review on the battery model and SOC estimation method. Processes, 9(9), 1685-1708.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2024 Array