Supplementary Files



photovoltaic arrays
mismatch losses
cloud shading effects
solar module interconnection


The effective reduction of mismatch losses in photovoltaic (PV) arrays is crucial for maximizing power generation. This study introduces a novel interconnection design called “Parallel Connected Photovoltaic Total Cross Tied” (P-TCT) to address this challenge. P-TCT optimizes a PV array by splitting PV modules into parallel TCT subgroups with even number of rows and optimal parallel branching. In this investigation, twenty-four PV modules in a 4 × 6 configuration with three parallelly connected TCT subgroups were arranged. MATLAB Simulink was employed for comprehensive modelling and simulations to compare the power generation performance of PV arrays employing Series Parallel (SP), Total Cross Tied (TCT) and P?TCT interconnection. Under ideal and shadeless condition, the twenty?four?module PV arrays generated a maximum power (Pmp) of 3,594 W. Simulations under various random partial cloud shading scenarios revealed the P?TCT array outperformed SP and TCT. In the first random partial cloud shading scenario, the P-TCT PV array produced 2,145 W, marking a significant 36.8% and 27.1% improvement over SP and TCT PV arrays, respectively. In the second random partial cloud shading scenario, P?TCT excelled, yielding 2,197 W, a remarkable 69.9% and 58.8% increase over SP and TCT PV arrays. In summary, this research demonstrates that the P?TCT interconnection is the optimal design among the three methods, significantly improving power generation and reducing mismatch losses in PV arrays.



Alahmad, M., Chaaban, M. A., Lau, S. k., Shi, J., & Neal, J. (2012). An adaptive utility interactive photovoltaic system based on a flexible switch matrix to optimize performance in real-time. Solar Energy, 86(3), 951-963.

Albadi, M.H. (2019). Solar PV power intermittency and its impacts on power systems - an overview. Journal of Engineering Research, 16(2), 142-150.

Ali, S., El Iysaouy, L., Lahbabi, M., Boujoudar, Y., Alharbi, S. J., Azeroual, M., Bassine, F. Z., Aljarbouh , A., Knyazkov, A., Albarakati, A., Rele, & M., Ness, S. (2023). A matlab-based modelling to study and enhance the performance of photovoltaic panel configurations during partial shading conditions. Frontiers in Energy Research, 11.

Bassi, H., Salam, Z., Ramli, M. Z., Sindi, H., & Rawa, M. (2019). Hardware approach to mitigate the effects of module mismatch in a grid-connected photovoltaic system: A review. Energies, 12(22), 4321.

Das, S. K., Verma, D., Nema, S., & Nema, R. K. (2017). Shading mitigation techniques: State-of-the-art in photovoltaic applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 78, 369-390.

El-Dein, M. Z. S., Kazerani, M., & Salama, M. M. A. (2012). An optimal total cross tied interconnection for reducing mismatch losses in photovoltaic arrays. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 4(1), 99-107.

Kurmanbay, A., Baktybekov, K., Sakhanov, K., Syzdykov, A., & Mukhamediyev, A. (2020). Optimization of series-parallel connection of PV array to mitigate negative influence of partial shading conditions. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 868(1), 012001, IOP Publishing.

Malaysia Energy Statistics Handbook. (2021). Department of Energy Management and Industrial Development Suruhanjaya Tenaga (Energy Commission).

Mohammadnejad, S., Khalafi, A., & Ahmadi, S. M. (2016). Mathematical analysis of total-cross-tied photovoltaic array under partial shading condition and its comparison with other configurations. Solar Energy, 133, 501-511.

Narne, D. K., Ramesh Kumar, T. A., & Alla, R. (2023). Evaluation of series-parallel-cross-tied PV array configuration performance with maximum power point tracking techniques under partial shading conditions. Clean Energy, 7(3), 620-634.

Niazi, K. A. K., Yang, Y., & Sera, D. (2019). Review of Mismatch Mitigation Techniques for Photovoltaic Modules. IET Renewable Power Generation, 13(12), 2035-2050.

Owusu, P. A., & Asumadu-Sarkodie, S. (2016). A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation. Cogent Engineering, 3(1), 1167990.

Pachauri, R. K., Bai, J., Kansal, I., Mahela, O. P., & Khan, B. (2021). Shade dispersion methodologies for performance improvement of classical total cross-tied photovoltaic array configuration under partial shading conditions. IET Renewable Power Generation, 15(8), 1796-1811.

Pareek, S., Chaturvedi, N., & Dahiya, R. (2017). Optimal interconnections to address partial shading losses in solar photovoltaic arrays. Solar Energy, 155, 537-551.

Sedeeq, S. Z., Ameen, A. H., & Muhammadsharif, F. F. (2015). Effect of series and parallel shading on the photovoltaic performance of silicon based solar panels. Journal of Technology Innovations in Renewable Energy, 4, 152-156.

Sher, F., Curnick, O., & Azizan, M. T. (2021). Sustainable conversion of renewable energy sources. Sustainability, 13(5), 2940.

Siaw, F. L., & Ooi, Y. Z. (2021). Photovoltaic array interconnection optimization based on cloud cover. Advances in Material Science and Engineering, Springer, Singapore.

Soomar, A. M., Hakeem, A., Messaoudi, M., Musznicki, P., Iqbal, A., & Czapp, S. (2022). Solar photovoltaic energy optimization and challenges. Frontiers in Energy Research, 10, 879985.

Wurster, T. S., & Schubert, M. B. (2014). Mismatch loss in photovoltaic systems. Solar Energy, 105, 505-511.

Yang, Y., & Siaw, F. L. (2021). An improved variable step size MPPT method for photovoltaic array under partial shading conditions. Journal of Engineering and Technological Advances, 6(1), 1-16.

Yin, J., Molini, A., & Porporato, A. (2020). Impacts of solar intermittency on future photovoltaic reliability. Nature Communications, 11(1), 4781.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2024 Array