Supplementary Files



Suitable areas for groundwater recharge, remote sensing, geographic information system, hierarchical analysis process (AHP)
suitable areas for groundwater recharge
remote sensing
geographic information system
analytical hierarchy process
artificial recharge map


Most water is obtained from groundwater in dry and semi-dry regions when permanent water sources like rivers and lakes do not exist. It is vital that groundwater is recharged to ensure that it remains abundant. By utilizing remote sensing techniques, geographic information system, analytical hierarchy process, and considering seven layers, this article presents a method for identifying suitable groundwater recharge areas. The mentioned layers include rainfall maps, slope, land cover, soil texture, lithology, drainage network density, and lineament density of Neyshabur Plain with an area of 7134 square kilometers. The artificial recharge map of Neyshabur Plain was created with four suitable categories: excellent, good, moderate, and poor. According to the study, 5.8% and 69.9% of the study area would be excellent and good for artificial recharge, respectively, while 21% and 3.3% of the area would be poor and unsuitable for artificial recharge, respectively. Most areas with excellent to good recharge have a slope between 0 to 3.4 degrees and are used for irrigated agriculture, dry farming, and low-density pastures. The main soil type in areas with excellent to good recharge is loam followed by sandy loam. Validation was done with 56 piezometers throughout the study area. In addition, the relative operating characteristic curve (ROC) was performed which indicates a good prediction accuracy.


Ahmadi, H., Kaya, O. A., Babadagi, E., Savas, T., & Pekkan, E. (2020). GIS-based groundwater potentiality mapping using AHP and FR models in central antalya, Turkey. Environmental Sciences Proceedings, 5(1), 11.

Ahmadi, T., Ziaei, A.N., Davary, K., Faridhosseini, A., Izadi, A., & Rasoulzadeh, A. (2013), Estimation of groundwater recharge using various methods in Neishaboor Plain, Iran. In Groundwater Modeling and Management under Uncertainty. Taylor & Francis Group.

Al-Ruzouq, R., Shanableh, A., Merabtene, T., Siddique, M., Khalil, M. A., Idris, A., & Almulla, E. (2019). Potential groundwater zone mapping based on geo-hydrological considerations and multi-criteria spatial analysis: North UAE. Catena, 173, 511-524.

Berhanu, B., Melesse, A. M., & Seleshi, Y. (2013). GIS-based hydrological zones and soil geo-database of Ethiopia. Catena, 104, 21-31.

Etikala, B., Golla, V., Li, P., & Renati, S. (2019). Deciphering groundwater potential zones using MIF technique and GIS: A study from Tirupati area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India. HydroResearch, 1, 1-7.

Hartmann, J., & Moosdorf, N. (2012). The new global lithological map database GLiM: A representation of rock properties at the Earth surface. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 13(12).

Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industries, Mines and Agriculture. (2022). Environmental effects caused by the reduction of water resources in the Neyshabur Plain, report in Persian.

Ku, C. Y., Hsu, S. M., Chiou, L. B., & Lin, G. F. (2009). An empirical model for estimating hydraulic conductivity of highly disturbed clastic sedimentary rocks in Taiwan. Engineering Geology, 109(3-4), 213-223.

Mahmoud, S. H. (2014). Delineation of potential sites for groundwater recharge using a GIS-based decision support system. Environmental Earth Sciences, 72, 3429-3442.

Mengistu, T. D., Chang, S. W., Kim, I. H., Kim, M. G., & Chung, I. M. (2022). Determination of potential aquifer recharge zones using geospatial techniques for proxy data of Gilgel Gibe Catchment, Ethiopia. Water, 14(9), 1362.

Mishra, A. K., Upadhyay, A., Srivastava, A., & Rai, S. C. (2020). Probabilistic groundwater recharge zonation in hard rock terrain using geospatial techniques in Veniar watershed, South India. Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, 20(3), 456-471.

Mogaji, K. A., & Omobude, O. B. (2017). Modeling of geoelectric parameters for assessing groundwater potentiality in a multifaceted geologic terrain, Ipinsa Southwest, Nigeria–A GIS-based GODT approach. NRIAG Journal of Astronomy and Geophysics, 6(2), 434-451.

Nag, S. K., & Ghosh, P. (2013). Delineation of groundwater potential zone in Chhatna Block, Bankura District, West Bengal, India using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Environmental Earth Sciences, 70, 2115-2127.

Saaty, T.L. (2001). Decision Making for Leaders: The Analytic Hierarchy Process for Decisions in a Complex World. RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Singh, L. K., Jha, M. K., & Chowdary, V. M. (2017). Multi-criteria analysis and GIS modeling for identifying prospective water harvesting and artificial recharge sites for sustainable water supply. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 1436-1456.

Thapa, R., Gupta, S., Guin, S., & Kaur, H. (2017). Assessment of groundwater potential zones using multi-influencing factor (MIF) and GIS: a case study from Birbhum district, West Bengal. Applied Water Science, 7, 4117-4131.

The United Nations Development Programme. (2022), The United Nations World Water Development Report 2022: Groundwater: Making the Invisible Visible; Facts and Figures.

Uc Castillo, J. L., Martínez Cruz, D. A., Ramos Leal, J. A., Tuxpan Vargas, J., Rodríguez Tapia, S. A., & Marín Celestino, A. E. (2022). Delineation of groundwater potential zones (GWPZs) in a semi-arid basin through remote sensing, GIS, and AHP approaches. Water, 14(13), 2138.

UN. (1967). Hydrogeologic map of Lebanon. Carte hydrogelogique du Liban au 1/100000 me, United Nations, Beyrouth, Lebanon.

Widodo, L. E., Cahyadi, T. A., Notosiswoyo, S., & Widijanto, E. (2017). Application of clustering system to analyze geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological data base according to HC-system approach.

Wondim, Y. K. (2016). Flood hazard and risk assessment using GIS and remote sensing in lower Awash sub-basin, Ethiopia. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 6(9), 69-86.

Zghibi, A., Mirchi, A., Msaddek, M. H., Merzougui, A., Zouhri, L., Taupin, J. D., Chekirbane, A., Chenini, I., & Tarhouni, J. (2020). Using analytical hierarchy process and multi-influencing factors to map groundwater recharge zones in a semi-arid Mediterranean coastal aquifer. Water, 12(9), 2525.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2024 Array