Supplementary Files



air monitoring station
air pollution
particulate matter 10


Air pollution has been a significant problem in Malaysia and has a substantial impact on agricultural production. Particulate matter 10 (PM10) is one of the major pollutants released by industries where it affects agricultural production by disrupting the photosynthesis process and the plant growth. In Malaysia, Kedah as the second largest producer of paddy and rice has four monitoring stations only to analyse the air quality. The lack of air monitoring stations around the state has put agricultural areas at elevated risk of being affected by air pollutants. Hence this research aims to simulate a backward trajectory HYSPLIT simulation from the air monitoring station to identify the source of PM10 emission coordinate and to conduct a forward concentration simulation to analyse the agricultural area affected by the pollutants. A starting date, meteorological data file, total runtime of simulation and coordinates of the monitoring stations during southwest monsoon season in 2019 were used as input for backward trajectory simulation while the obtained source emission coordinate was used as the input for forward concentration simulation. The result from the backward trajectory simulation shows that the source of emission coordinate was within Bayan Lepas after analysing every potential intersection on the map and the industries surrounding it. As revealed in the forward concentration simulation result, there were six agricultural areas exposed to an air pollutant concentration level that are low and moderate. It can be concluded that these exposed agricultural areas are within the safe limit.


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